Several important structures pass through the cavernous sinus between the venous channels:
-The internal carotid artery.
-The ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve (V1)
-The maxillary division of the trigeminal nerve (V2)
-The oculomotor nerve (III)
-The trochlear nerve (IV)
-The abducens nerve (VI)
Occasionally, the bony wall separating the internal carotid artery from the sphenoid sinus is very thin or absent. In such instances, the carotid is seen pulsating in the lateral aspect of the sphenoid sinus.